Dr Carol Turley

PML Senior Scientist

Dr Carol Turley

Contact Details

+44 (0)1752 633100 (switchboard)

Dr Carol Turley’s research has been centred on the ocean’s biogeochemical cycles looking at habitats from shallow and deep-sea sediments, estuaries, frontal systems to large enclosed waters. She has researched pelagic-benthic coupling and the role of sediment dwelling microorganisms on mediating sediment processes and the effect of sediment bound contaminants on biodiversity and biogeochemical processes.

In the last 10 years she became interested in ocean acidification leading the UK Government (Defra) review on impact of pH change on the marine environment, she was an author on the OSPAR report on the topic, a member of The Royal Society Working Group on ocean acidification and was a lead author on the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report on Climate Change. She was/is a member of the Executive Board of the EU funded European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA), the EU funded Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a Changing Climate (MedSeA) project and is the Knowledge Exchange Coordinator for the UK Ocean Acidification (UKOA) Research Programme funded by NERC, Defra and DECC and led the writing of the Science and Implementation Plan for UKOA. She has contributed to several UNFCCC events, including giving evidence to its SBSTA in Bonn and since 2009 presenting at side-events at the annual UN Conferences on Climate Change in Copenhagen (COP15), Cancun (COP16), Durban (COP17), Doha (COP18) and Warsaw (COP19) and at the Earth Summit, Rio+20 in 2012.

She briefs a wide range of interested global stakeholders including the UK Government departments of DECC, Defra, FCO and GO Science, as well as the UK Government Chief Scientists, on the latest science of ocean acidification and has presented in the Houses of Parliament and European Parliament. She has published and presented on a wide range of topics within the field of ocean acidification, ranging from its cause, chemistry, impacts and the potential social, economic and political consequences. She was a member of the expert panel presenting at the 17-20 June 2013 UNICPLOS 14th ICP in New York on ocean acidification and also presented at the IAEA side event and moderated the CBD-IOC/UNESCO side event on aspects of ocean acidification there. She is Chair of the high level Advisory Board of the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre based at the IAEA in Monaco and is a Review Editor for the 5th IPCC Assessment Report on Climate Change. She has over 120 peer reviewed publications and a similar number of reports. She has been an invited/keynote speaker at numerous international conferences. She received an OBE for services to science in the 2011 New Year’s Honours List.

Key Projects

NERC, Defra and DECC: KE coordination for the UK ocean acidification Research Programme (2010-2015)

NERC: KE award for production of a film on ocean acidification (2010-2013)

EU FP7: Mediterranean Ocean Acidification in a Changing Climate (MedSeA)(2010-2013)

RCUK: UKERC Energy and Environment theme (2009-2012)

EU FP7: European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA)(2008-2012)

Other Activities

Member of the Science Advisory Board for the Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health XPRIZE (2014-)

IPCC 5th Assessment Report on Climate Change, Review Editor (2010-2014)

Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a Changing Sea project Scientific Steering Group (2011-)

Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Ocean Acidification subcommittee (OCB-OA) (2011-)

Mediterranean Reference User Group on ocean acidification (MRUG) (2011-)

German BIOACID Ocean Acidification Programme Scientific Steering Group (2009-)

Research Councils UK Energy Programme Scientific Steering Group (2009-)

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) Scientific Advisory Board (2008- )

International Ocean Acidification Reference User Group (2008-)

European Project on Ocean Acidification Executive Board (EPOCA) (2008- )

Royal Society's Climate Change Advisory Network (2006- 2012)

IPCC 4th Assessment Report Working Group II Lead Author (2005-2007)

SOLAS-IMBER Ocean Acidification Working Group (2010-)


Williamson, P. & Turley, C. (2012) Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 370, (1974), 4317–4342. doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0167

Turley, C. & Gattuso, J.-P. (2012), Future biological and ecosystem impacts of ocean acidification and their socioeconomic-policy implications. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4:1–9

Turley, C. & Boot, K. (2010) Environmental consequence of ocean acidification: a threat to food security. UNEP Emerging Issues Bulletin, pp 9.  

Turley, C. & Boot, K. (2011) The ocean acidification challenges facing science and society.  In Ocean acidification (eds. Gattuso J.-P. & Hansson L.), Chapter 13, p 249-271. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gattuso, J.-P., Bijma, J., Gehlen, M., Riebesell, U., & Turley, C. (2011) Ocean acidification: knowns, unknowns and perspectives. In: Ocean acidification (eds. Gattuso, J.-P. & Hansson, L.), Chapter 15, pp. 291-312. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Turley C., Keizer T., Williamson P., Gattuso J.-P., Ziveri P., Munroe R., Boot K., M. Huelsenbeck, 2011. Hot, Sour and Breathless – Ocean under stress. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme, European Project on Ocean Acidification, Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a Changing Climate project, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, OCEANA; 6pp. ISBN: 978-0-9519618-6-5.

Hilmi N, Allemand D, Dupont  S, Safa A, Haraldsson G, Nunes PD, Moore C, Hattam C, Rynaud S, Hall-Spencer JM, Fine M, Turley C, Jeffree R, Orr J, Munday PL and S Cooley. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts. Marine Biology DOI 10.1007/500227-012-2031-5

Turley C, J-P Gattuso & O Hoegh-Gulberg 2011. Ocean acidification: examples of potential impacts.  In Richardson, K., Steffen, W., Liverman, D. et al. 2011. Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37-39

Turley C & K Boot (2011) The ocean acidification challenges facing science and society.  In Ocean acidification (eds. Gattuso J.-P. & Hansson L.), Chapter 13, p 249-271. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gattuso J-P, Bijma J, Gehlen M, Riebesell U & C Turley (2011) Ocean acidification: knowns, unknowns and perspectives. In: Ocean acidification (eds. Gattuso J.-P. & Hansson L.), Chapter 15, pp. 291-312. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Winn J, Tierney M, Heathwaite L, Jones L, Patterson J, Simpson L, Thompson A and C Turley (2011). The drivers of change in UK ecosystems and ecosystem services. In: The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. UK National Ecosystem Assessment. Chapter 3, pp.34 UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge. http://uknea.unep-wcmc.org/Resources/tabid/82/Default.aspx

Turley, C (2011) Ocean Acidification. A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean, Fish and Fisheries, 12, 352-354.

Brewer, P and C Turley (2011) Breakout Group II-3: Scaling up to humans: the socioeconomics of ocean acidification. In: IPCC, 2011: Workshop Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Workshop on Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biology and Ecosystems [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, M.D. Mastrandrea, M. Tignor and K.L. Ebi (eds.)]. IPCC Working Group II Technical Support Unit, Carnegie Institution, Stanford, California, United States of America, pp. 164.

Turley C, (2010). Impacts of a high CO2 world on marine ecosystems. In: Schneider SH, Rosencranz A, Mastrandrea M, Kuntz-Duriseti K (editors). Climate Change and Policy. Island Press, 5, 66-73.

Turley C, Blackford J, Hardman-Mountford N, Litt E, Llewellyn C, Lowe D, Miller P, Nightingale P, Rees A, Smyth T, Tilstone G, Widdicombe S. 2010. Carbon uptake, transport and storage by oceans and the consequences of change in carbon capture and storage (CCS). In: Harrison R, Hester R (editors). Issues in environmental science and technology (IEST). Royal Society of Chemistry, volume 29, p.240-284.

Turley C, Brownlee C, Findlay HS, Mangi S, Ridgwell A, Schmidt DN, Schroeder DC, (2010). Ocean acidification. In: MCCIP Annual Report Card 2010-11, MCCIP Science Review, 27pp. www.mccip.org.uk/arc.

Turley C, Eby M, Ridgwell AJ, Schmidt DN, Findlay HS, Brownlee C, Riebesel U, Gattuso J-P, Fabry VJ, Feely RA, (2010). The societal challenge of ocean acidification. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 787-792.

Ridgwell A, Schmidt DN, Turley C, Brownlee C, Maldonado MT, Tortell P, Young JR. (2009). From laboratory manipulations to Earth system models: scaling calcification impacts of ocean acidification. Biogeosciences, 6, 2611-2623.

Turley C, Findlay HS. (2009). Ocean acidification as an indicator for climate change. In: Letcher TM (editor). Climate change: observed impacts on planet Earth. Elsevier, Chapter 21, 367-390.

Turley C, Scholes M, 2009. Ocean and land acidification – climate change: global risks, challenges and decisions. In: Richardson K et al. (editors). Summary for Policy Makers, Climate Change Congress Copenhagen 9-12 March 2009.

Findlay HS, Kendall MA, Spicer JI, Turley C, Widdicombe S. (2008). A novel microcosm system for investigating the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on marine organisms. Aquatic Biology, 3, 51–62.

Hughes C, Malin G, Turley CM, Keely BJ, Nightingale PD. 2008. The production of volatile iodocarbons by biogenic marine aggregates. Limnology and Oceanography, 53(2), 867-872.

Fischlin A, Midgley GF, Price JT, Leemans R, Gopal B, Turley C, Rounsevell MDA, Dube OP, Tarazona J, Velichko AA. (2007). Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (editors). Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.211-272.

Turley CM, Roberts JM, Guinotte JM. 2007. Perspective. Corals in deep-water: Will the unseen hand of ocean acidification destroy cold-water ecosystems? Coral Reefs, 26, 445-448.

Turley C, Blackford J, Widdicombe S, Lowe D, Nightingale PD, Rees AP, (2006). Reviewing the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 on oceanic pH and the marine ecosystem. In: Schellnhuber HJ, Cramer W, Nakicenovic N, Wigley T, Yohe G, (editors). Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 8, 65-70.

Raven J, Caldeira K, Elderfield H, Hough-Guldberg O, Liss P, Riebesell U, Shepherd J, Turley CM, Watson A, (2005). Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Royal Society Policy document, 12/05, 68pp.

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